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What are Horizontal Restraints?

Photo by Paul Fiedler on Unsplash Horizontal restraints are contractual agreements between competing firms that restrain trade, such as by fixing prices, limiting production, rigging bids or auctions, or artifically allocating markets or customers. While horizontal restraints aren’t necessarily only anti-competitive—with some having pro-competitive effects as well—many cases of horizontal restraint, like price fixing, are purely […]

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What are Horizontal Mergers?

Photo by m. on Unsplash Similarly to horizontal restraints, horizontal mergers are mergers between firms that directly compete — take the Discovery and Capital One merger from just a few days ago. Firms compete, in turn, if customer view the firms’ products as substitutes (diversion being the principal metric there). Firms may horizontally merge to increase or protect their

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Unburnable Carbon, Stranded Assets, and the Green Paradox

Photo by Chris LeBoutillier on Unsplash Unburnable carbon is to the notion that the volume of fossil fuels remaining in the ground, specifically that of crude, exceeds humanity’s “budget”, or the carbon emission cap we need to implement to limit temperature rise by 2°C. This forecast turns a significant (majority) portion of world oil reserves into stranded

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What is Cyclical, Frictional, And Structural Unemployment?

Photo by Alex Kotliarskyi on Unsplash Frictional unemployment, structural unemployment, and cyclical unemployment are three different types of unemployment that occur in the economy. Whether the economy is good or bad, there are always people transitioning between jobs. While these workers can be skilled and have no trouble getting a new job, the size of the labour

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